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Mass, volume, and density of regularly and irregularly shaped objects



Subject

Science and Technology and Engineering Education, Science


Grade Levels

6th Grade , 7th Grade , 8th Grade



Description

Objectives:                                                                                                                   Name ____________________________________

  • Use a balance to determine the mass of regularly and irregularly-shaped objects.
  • Use water displacement and direct measurement to determine the volume of regularly

      shaped-objects using both direct measurements and water displacement.

  • Use water displacement to determine the volume of irregularly shaped objects.
  • Determine when to use direct measurement and when to use water displacement to calculate volume.
  • Calculate the density of regularly and irregularly-shaped objects.
  • Accurately record data from a laboratory experience to data tables.
  • Use reasoning skills and observations to determine identities of objects.


 

1. Characteristic properties of a substance are those that never change for that substance.  For each of the following, state whether or not you think it is a characteristic property of the object and why you answer as you do.

 a. mass – characteristic property?  Yes or no (circle one).  Why or why not?

b. volume - characteristic property?  Yes or no (circle one).  Why or why not?

c. density - characteristic property?  Yes or no (circle one).  Why or why not?

2. If the two objects had the same length, width, height, and shape, why were they not the same density?  

3. If two similar objects have different masses will their densities differ also?

 

 

 

 


Resource

Part A.  Regularly-shaped objects.

*Note – Read all steps before starting any work.

1. Be sure to zero (tare) the scale before placing the cube on the balance.  Measure the mass (in grams) using the balance.  Record data in data table.

2. Measure the length, width, and height of the aluminum cubes (in cm).  Record data in data table.

3. Calculate volume (l  x  w  x  h).  Record data in data table

4. Carefully place 50 ml of water in the 100 ml graduated cylinder.  Note that 50 ml is recorded on the data table as “initial volume”.

5. Place the aluminum cube in the graduated cylinder.  If it floats, use the wooden rod to carefully submerge the cube (simply push the cube under the water just until the entire cube is submerged).  Read the volume measurement (in ml) of the graduated cylinder and record under as the “final volume”. 

6. Remove the cube from the cylinder (you can pour the water into the beaker to help).  Dry the cube.

7. Determine the cube’s volume using water displacement (subtract the initial volume from the final volume) and record the answer on the data table.

8. Determine the aluminum cube’s density (D = m/v) and record the answer on the data table.

9. Repeat all steps for the steel cube.

A. Data Table

 

 

 

 

Object

 

 

 

Mass (g)

 

 

 

Volume (measured = l x w x h) (cm3)

l (cm)    w (cm)    h (cm)   volume (cm3)

Density

(D = m/v)

[using measured volume}

 

 

 

Volume (water displacement) (ml)

Final vol (ml) Initial vol (ml)  Object’s volume (ml)

Density

(D = m/v)

{using water displacement volume}

Aluminum

Cube

 

 

 

                            50 ml

 

Steel

Cube

 

 

 

                             50 ml

 

 

Questions:

1. Characteristic properties of a substance are those that never change for that substance.  For each of the following, state whether or not you think it is a characteristic property of the object and why you answer as you do.

 

a. mass – characteristic property?  Yes or no (circle one).  Why or why not? __________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

b. volume - characteristic property?  Yes or no (circle one).  Why or why not? ________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

c. density - characteristic property?  Yes or no (circle one).  Why or why not? ________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. Compare the volumes determined by using the ruler and using water displacement.  Why might there be some differences? __________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3. If the two objects had the same length, width, height, and shape, why were they not the same density? ___________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Part B.  Irregularly shaped objects.

*Note – Read all steps before starting any work.

1.  Measure the mass (in grams) of the wooden stick and record the data in the appropriate area of the data table.

2.  Carefully place 50 ml of water in the 100 ml graduated cylinder.  Note that 50 ml is recorded on the data table as “initial volume”.

3.  Place the stick in the graduated cylinder – if it floats – use the wooden rod to submerge the object.  Read and record the ‘final volume”.

4.  Remove the stick and pat it dry.

5.  Determine density (D = m/v)

6.  Break the stick in half (close is fine!).

7.  Repeat all the above steps for each piece and record all data in the appropriate spot on the data table.

8.   Do the same procedures for the piece of modeling clay. And record all data.

B. Data Table

 

Object

Mass (g)

Volume (water displacement) (ml)

Final vol (ml) Initial vol (ml)  Object’s volume (ml)

Density

(D = m/v)

Wooden stick - whole

 

                            50 ml

 

Wooden stick – piece #1

 

                             50 ml

 

Wooden stick – piece #2

 

                             50 ml

 

Modeling clay - whole

 

                             50 ml

 

Modeling clay – piece #1

 

                             50 ml

 

Modeling clay – piece #2

 

                             50 ml

 

 

Questions:

1. Why can you not use the ruler to determine the volume of the modeling clay? _______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. Why did you dry the objects before each step? _______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3. Compare the mass of the whole wooden stick to the sum of the two pieces? ________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

4. Compare the mass of the whole modeling clay to the sum of the two pieces? ________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

5.  Why could the masses of the sums of the two pieces be different than the mass of the whole piece? _____________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

6. How does the density of the whole piece of wood compare to the density of the two pieces? ___________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

7. How does the density of the whole piece of modeling clay compare to the density of the two pieces? ____________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Part C. Extension activities 

*Note – Read all steps before starting any work.

1.  Measure the mass of the smallest fishing sinker using the balance.  Record the data in the appropriate place on the following data table.

2.  Repeat step 1 for the medium fishing sinker.  Record the data.

3.  Repeat step 2 for the large fishing sinker. Record the data.

4.  Carefully place 50 ml of water in the 100 ml graduated cylinder.  Note that 50 ml is recorded on the data table as “initial volume”.

5.  Place the small fishing sinker in the graduated cylinder – if it floats – use the wooden rod to submerge the object.  Read and record the “final volume”.

6.  Remove the sinker and pat it dry.

7.  Determine density (D = m/v)

8.  Repeat steps 4 thru 7 for the medium and then the large fishing sink.

9.  Measure the mass of the wood block labeled “A”.  Record the data in the appropriate place on the data table.

10. Measure the mass of the wood block labeled “B”.  Record the data.

11. Determine the volume of the wood block labeled “A” by carefully measuring the length, width and height of the block and recording the data. 

12. Determine density (D = m/v)

13. Repeat steps 11 and 12 for the wood block labeled “B”.  Record all data.

{Special note – volume of the wooden blocks can also be determined by the water displacement method, please check with your instructor if that will be required).

 

 

C1 -  Data Table

Object

Mass (g)

Volume (water displacement) (ml)

Final vol (ml) Initial vol (ml)  Object’s volume (ml)

Density

(D = m/v)

Small

sinker

 

                            50 ml

 

Medium sinker

 

                             50 ml

 

Large

sinker

 

                             50 ml

 

 

Questions:

1. Compare the masses of the three (3) sinkers. _________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. Why did you have to use the water displacement method to determine the volume of the sinkers? ___________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3. Compare the volumes of the three (3) sinkers. ________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

4. Compare the densities of the three (3) sinkers. ________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

5. What does this information tell you about the three sinkers?   Why? ______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

C2 – Data Table:

 

 

 

Object

 

 

 

Mass (g)

 

 

 

Volume (measured = l x w x h) (cm3)

l (cm)    w (cm)    h (cm)   volume (cm3)

Density

(D = m/v)

[using measured volume}

 

 

 

Volume (water displacement) (ml)

Final vol (ml) Initial vol (ml)  Object’s volume (ml)

Density

(D = m/v)

{using water displacement volume}

Wood block “A”

 

 

 

                            50 ml

 

Wood block “B”

 

 

 

                             50 ml

 

 

Questions:

6. Compare the masses of the two blocks of wood _______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

7. Why were you able to use direct measurement to determine the volume of the wood block? ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­____________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

8. Compare the volumes of the two wood blocks. ________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

9. Compare the densities of the two wood blocks. _______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

10, Using this information, what can you say about the two blocks of wood?  Why? ____________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

                                                                                                                                        

 

Measure volume of water in a graduated cylinder at the bottom of the ‘meniscus’ which is the bottom of the arc the water makes in the tube.  So the measurement of the volume of water in the above example is 36 ml.

 

 

 

Supply list:

Aluminum cubes (must be the same size as the steel cubes and be able to fit in a 100 ml graduated cylinder)

Steel cubes

Wooden stick

Modeling clay

Small, medium and large steel fishing lures (with equal length strings attached)

Wooden blocks – same size, must be able to fit into 100 ml graduated cylinder – one is to be a hard wood and one a soft wood

100 ml graduated cylinders

Wooden rods (to push materials under water)

Squirt bottles (to carefully fill graduated cylinders to 50ml)

Eyedroppers (to remove water from graduated cylinders to bring water back to 50ml)

Beakers (water for each table)

Rulers

Paper towels


Content Provider

 

Mark Temons  SAS


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