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Mass, volume, and density of regularly and irregularly shaped objects

Grade Levels

6th Grade, 7th Grade, 8th Grade

Course, Subject

Science,Science and Technology and Engineering Education
  • Big Ideas
    A technological world requires that humans develop capabilities to solve technological challenges and improve products for the way we live.
    An object’s motion is the result of all forces acting on it.
    Each area of technology has a set of characteristics that separates it from others; however, many areas overlap in order to meet human needs and wants.
    Matter has observable physical properties and the potential to mix and form new materials.
    Technological design is a creative process that anyone can do which may result in new inventions and innovations.
    Technological literacy is the ability to use, assess and manage technology around us.
    Technology is created, used and modified by humans.
  • Concepts
    A substance has characteristic properties such as density, boiling point, freezing point, solubility, all of which are independent of the mass or volume of the sample.
    A technological design & problem solving process changes ideas into a final product or system.
    All matter is made up of building blocks called atoms. Atoms are characterized by their parts including protons, electrons, and neutrons.
    All matter is made up of particles, which are far too small to see directly through a microscope.
    An object will stay at rest or continue at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an external, unbalanced force.
    Bio-related technologies are the processes of using biological mater to make or modify products.
    Bio-related technologies are the processes of using biological organisms to make or modify products.
    Changing a substance’s state of matter may change its density but not its composition.
    Communication is the process of composing, sending, and receiving messages through technology.
    Communication is the process of composing, sending, and receiving messages using technological devices.
    Compounds may only be broken down into simpler types of matter (elements) by chemical means.
    Construction is the process of turning materials into useful structures.
    Construction is the process of turning raw materials into useful structures.
    Creating optimal solutions under constraints are a primary component of technological problem solving (e.g., tools/machines, materials, information, people, capital, energy, and time).
    Decisions about the use of products and systems can result in expected and unexpected consequences.
    Decisions about the use of products and systems can result in known and unexpected consequences.
    Elements are the basic building blocks of matter that cannot be broken down chemically and are made up all of the same type of atoms.
    Energy and power technologies are the processes of converting energy sources into useful power.
    Energy and power technologies use processes to convert energy into power.
    Friction is an example of an electromagnetic force that opposes motion between two surfaces.
    Human decision making (e.g. Human needs and wants plus cultural considerations) drives the selection and/or use of technologies.
    In a technological world, inventions and innovations must be carefully assessed by individuals and society as a whole.
    Innovation is the process of improving an existing product, process, or system.
    Innovation is the process of modifying an existing product, process, or system to improve it.
    Invention is a process of creating new products, processes, or systems.
    Invention is a process of turning ideas and imagination into new products, processes, or systems.
    Inventions and innovations must be carefully assessed by individuals and society.
    Manufacturing is the process of turning materials into useful products.
    Manufacturing is the process of turning raw materials into useful products.
    Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in an object.
    Materials are characterized by having a specific amount of mass in each unit of volume (density).
    Mechanical advantage, using less force over a greater distance, allows the same work to be performed with less effort.
    Models (graphs) of an object’s velocity versus time can be used to infer the presence of absence of unbalanced forces.
    Moving electric charges produce magnetic forces and moving magnets produce electric forces.
    Particles are always in motion with the smallest motion in solids progressing to the largest motion in gases.
    People select, create, and use technology.
    Safety is a preeminent concern for all technological development and use.
    Safety is one of the most important concerns for all technological development and use.
    Science and technology are interconnected.
    Science is the study of the natural world and technology is the study of the human designed world but both are inextricably connected.
    Simple machines help accomplish a task with less effort by either changing the direction of motion or increasing the mechanical advantage.
    Technological design & problem solving follows many steps.
    Technological design & problem solving includes clearly communicated solutions.
    Technological design & problem solving includes frequent checking.
    Technological design & problem solving requires hands-on applications.
    Technological literacy is necessary for a productive workforce.
    Technological literacy is necessary for all citizens.
    Technological literacy is the ability to understand, use, assess, design, and create technology.
    Technological literacy requires lifelong learning.
    Technology and society impact each other.
    The abilities required in a technological world include diagnosing, troubleshooting, analyzing and maintaining systems.
    The abilities required in a technological world include understanding, fixing, and maintaining systems.
    The goal of technology is to meet human needs and wants.
    The gravitational force is a universal force that depends on how much mass the objects have and how far apart they are.
    The magnitude of the gravitational force is weight (oz, lb, newtons).
    The study of the impacts of technological systems enables us to plan and direct technological developments.
    The use of technology involves weighing the trade-offs of the positive and negative effects.
    There are over one hundred known elements each with characteristic properties from which all other matter is made.
    Transportation is the process of safely and efficiently moving people and products.
    Two of the fundamental forces that exist in the universe are gravity and electromagnetism.
    Unbalanced forces acting on an object cause changes in its velocity.
    Understanding technological systems help us plan and control technological developments.
    When two or more substances are combined, they may form a mixture and maintain their original properties or they may react chemically to form a new substance with new properties.
    While science is the study of the natural world, technology is the study of the human designed world.
  • Competencies
    Clearly communicate technological solutions.
    Demonstrate how technological progress promotes the advancement of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM).
    Describe how science and technology work together.
    Describe the complementary roles of scientific knowledge and technological application.
    Describe the nature of technology and the consequences of technological activity which impact society and the world.
    Describe the nature of technology.
    Design and develop the ability to create and send messages using technological devices.
    Design and develop the ability to safely and effectively use tools and materials to build structures.
    Design and develop the ability to safely and effectively use tools and materials to convert energy into power.
    Design and develop the ability to safely and effectively use tools and materials to create bio-related products and systems using technology.
    Design and develop the ability to safely and effectively use tools and materials to create vehicles that transport people and products.
    Design and develop the ability to safely and effectively use tools and materials to manufacture products.
    Design, implement, record, explain, and justify safe and effective laboratory procedures to determine the relationship between two variables, controlling for other factors that might also affect the relationship.
    Develop the abilities to use and maintain technological products and systems.
    Differentiate between the study of science and technology.
    Explain how making informed decisions about the development and use of technology may have known and unexpected consequences.
    Explain how people select, create and use technology.
    Explain how technology has and can change the human condition throughout time.
    Explain the importance of carefully assessing technological inventions and innovations.
    Recognize technological literacy requires lifetime learning.
    Recognize the importance of using technological knowledge in society.
    Use appropriate technologies to make precise quantitative measurements and observations and to organize and analyze the data.
    Use hands-on skills to create useful products.
    Verify that engineering design is influenced by personal characteristics, such as creativity, resourcefulness and the ability to visualize and think abstractly.

Description

Objectives:                                                                                                                   Name ____________________________________

  • Use a balance to determine the mass of regularly and irregularly-shaped objects.
  • Use water displacement and direct measurement to determine the volume of regularly

      shaped-objects using both direct measurements and water displacement.

  • Use water displacement to determine the volume of irregularly shaped objects.
  • Determine when to use direct measurement and when to use water displacement to calculate volume.
  • Calculate the density of regularly and irregularly-shaped objects.
  • Accurately record data from a laboratory experience to data tables.
  • Use reasoning skills and observations to determine identities of objects.

Rationale

 

1. Characteristic properties of a substance are those that never change for that substance.  For each of the following, state whether or not you think it is a characteristic property of the object and why you answer as you do.

 a. mass – characteristic property?  Yes or no (circle one).  Why or why not?

b. volume - characteristic property?  Yes or no (circle one).  Why or why not?

c. density - characteristic property?  Yes or no (circle one).  Why or why not?

2. If the two objects had the same length, width, height, and shape, why were they not the same density?  

3. If two similar objects have different masses will their densities differ also?

 

 

 

 

Resource

Part A.  Regularly-shaped objects.

*Note – Read all steps before starting any work.

1. Be sure to zero (tare) the scale before placing the cube on the balance.  Measure the mass (in grams) using the balance.  Record data in data table.

2. Measure the length, width, and height of the aluminum cubes (in cm).  Record data in data table.

3. Calculate volume (l  x  w  x  h).  Record data in data table

4. Carefully place 50 ml of water in the 100 ml graduated cylinder.  Note that 50 ml is recorded on the data table as “initial volume”.

5. Place the aluminum cube in the graduated cylinder.  If it floats, use the wooden rod to carefully submerge the cube (simply push the cube under the water just until the entire cube is submerged).  Read the volume measurement (in ml) of the graduated cylinder and record under as the “final volume”. 

6. Remove the cube from the cylinder (you can pour the water into the beaker to help).  Dry the cube.

7. Determine the cube’s volume using water displacement (subtract the initial volume from the final volume) and record the answer on the data table.

8. Determine the aluminum cube’s density (D = m/v) and record the answer on the data table.

9. Repeat all steps for the steel cube.

A. Data Table

 

 

 

 

Object

 

 

 

Mass (g)

 

 

 

Volume (measured = l x w x h) (cm3)

l (cm)    w (cm)    h (cm)   volume (cm3)

Density

(D = m/v)

[using measured volume}

 

 

 

Volume (water displacement) (ml)

Final vol (ml) Initial vol (ml)  Object’s volume (ml)

Density

(D = m/v)

{using water displacement volume}

Aluminum

Cube

 

 

 

                            50 ml

 

Steel

Cube

 

 

 

                             50 ml

 

 

Questions:

1. Characteristic properties of a substance are those that never change for that substance.  For each of the following, state whether or not you think it is a characteristic property of the object and why you answer as you do.

 

a. mass – characteristic property?  Yes or no (circle one).  Why or why not? __________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

b. volume - characteristic property?  Yes or no (circle one).  Why or why not? ________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

c. density - characteristic property?  Yes or no (circle one).  Why or why not? ________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. Compare the volumes determined by using the ruler and using water displacement.  Why might there be some differences? __________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3. If the two objects had the same length, width, height, and shape, why were they not the same density? ___________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Part B.  Irregularly shaped objects.

*Note – Read all steps before starting any work.

1.  Measure the mass (in grams) of the wooden stick and record the data in the appropriate area of the data table.

2.  Carefully place 50 ml of water in the 100 ml graduated cylinder.  Note that 50 ml is recorded on the data table as “initial volume”.

3.  Place the stick in the graduated cylinder – if it floats – use the wooden rod to submerge the object.  Read and record the ‘final volume”.

4.  Remove the stick and pat it dry.

5.  Determine density (D = m/v)

6.  Break the stick in half (close is fine!).

7.  Repeat all the above steps for each piece and record all data in the appropriate spot on the data table.

8.   Do the same procedures for the piece of modeling clay. And record all data.

B. Data Table

 

Object

Mass (g)

Volume (water displacement) (ml)

Final vol (ml) Initial vol (ml)  Object’s volume (ml)

Density

(D = m/v)

Wooden stick - whole

 

                            50 ml

 

Wooden stick – piece #1

 

                             50 ml

 

Wooden stick – piece #2

 

                             50 ml

 

Modeling clay - whole

 

                             50 ml

 

Modeling clay – piece #1

 

                             50 ml

 

Modeling clay – piece #2

 

                             50 ml

 

 

Questions:

1. Why can you not use the ruler to determine the volume of the modeling clay? _______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. Why did you dry the objects before each step? _______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3. Compare the mass of the whole wooden stick to the sum of the two pieces? ________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

4. Compare the mass of the whole modeling clay to the sum of the two pieces? ________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

5.  Why could the masses of the sums of the two pieces be different than the mass of the whole piece? _____________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

6. How does the density of the whole piece of wood compare to the density of the two pieces? ___________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

7. How does the density of the whole piece of modeling clay compare to the density of the two pieces? ____________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Part C. Extension activities 

*Note – Read all steps before starting any work.

1.  Measure the mass of the smallest fishing sinker using the balance.  Record the data in the appropriate place on the following data table.

2.  Repeat step 1 for the medium fishing sinker.  Record the data.

3.  Repeat step 2 for the large fishing sinker. Record the data.

4.  Carefully place 50 ml of water in the 100 ml graduated cylinder.  Note that 50 ml is recorded on the data table as “initial volume”.

5.  Place the small fishing sinker in the graduated cylinder – if it floats – use the wooden rod to submerge the object.  Read and record the “final volume”.

6.  Remove the sinker and pat it dry.

7.  Determine density (D = m/v)

8.  Repeat steps 4 thru 7 for the medium and then the large fishing sink.

9.  Measure the mass of the wood block labeled “A”.  Record the data in the appropriate place on the data table.

10. Measure the mass of the wood block labeled “B”.  Record the data.

11. Determine the volume of the wood block labeled “A” by carefully measuring the length, width and height of the block and recording the data. 

12. Determine density (D = m/v)

13. Repeat steps 11 and 12 for the wood block labeled “B”.  Record all data.

{Special note – volume of the wooden blocks can also be determined by the water displacement method, please check with your instructor if that will be required).

 

 

C1 -  Data Table

Object

Mass (g)

Volume (water displacement) (ml)

Final vol (ml) Initial vol (ml)  Object’s volume (ml)

Density

(D = m/v)

Small

sinker

 

                            50 ml

 

Medium sinker

 

                             50 ml

 

Large

sinker

 

                             50 ml

 

 

Questions:

1. Compare the masses of the three (3) sinkers. _________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. Why did you have to use the water displacement method to determine the volume of the sinkers? ___________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3. Compare the volumes of the three (3) sinkers. ________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

4. Compare the densities of the three (3) sinkers. ________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

5. What does this information tell you about the three sinkers?   Why? ______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

C2 – Data Table:

 

 

 

Object

 

 

 

Mass (g)

 

 

 

Volume (measured = l x w x h) (cm3)

l (cm)    w (cm)    h (cm)   volume (cm3)

Density

(D = m/v)

[using measured volume}

 

 

 

Volume (water displacement) (ml)

Final vol (ml) Initial vol (ml)  Object’s volume (ml)

Density

(D = m/v)

{using water displacement volume}

Wood block “A”

 

 

 

                            50 ml

 

Wood block “B”

 

 

 

                             50 ml

 

 

Questions:

6. Compare the masses of the two blocks of wood _______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

7. Why were you able to use direct measurement to determine the volume of the wood block? ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­____________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

8. Compare the volumes of the two wood blocks. ________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

9. Compare the densities of the two wood blocks. _______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

10, Using this information, what can you say about the two blocks of wood?  Why? ____________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

                                                                                                                                        

 

Measure volume of water in a graduated cylinder at the bottom of the ‘meniscus’ which is the bottom of the arc the water makes in the tube.  So the measurement of the volume of water in the above example is 36 ml.

 

 

 

Supply list:

Aluminum cubes (must be the same size as the steel cubes and be able to fit in a 100 ml graduated cylinder)

Steel cubes

Wooden stick

Modeling clay

Small, medium and large steel fishing lures (with equal length strings attached)

Wooden blocks – same size, must be able to fit into 100 ml graduated cylinder – one is to be a hard wood and one a soft wood

100 ml graduated cylinders

Wooden rods (to push materials under water)

Squirt bottles (to carefully fill graduated cylinders to 50ml)

Eyedroppers (to remove water from graduated cylinders to bring water back to 50ml)

Beakers (water for each table)

Rulers

Paper towels

Content Provider

 

Mark Temons  SAS

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