Lesson Plan

Exaggeration in Nonfiction

Objectives

[IS.5 - Language Function]

In this lesson, students examine the problems caused by the exaggeration that is prevalent in propaganda and some editorials. Students will: [IS.6 - All Students]

  • define exaggeration and propaganda.
  • identify examples of exaggeration in propaganda and editorials.
  • read several passages and identify them as objective or biased, underlining supporting evidence.
  • label specific examples of stereotyping and exaggeration.  [IS.7 - Level 1]

Essential Questions

  • How does interaction with text provoke thinking and response?

Vocabulary

[IS.1 - Preparation ]

[IS.2 - ELP Standards]

[IS.3 - Language Function]

  • Bias: A judgment based on a personal point of view. [IS.4 - All Students]
  • Exaggeration: To make an overstatement or to stretch the truth.
  • Propaganda Techniques and Persuasive Tactics: Propaganda techniques and persuasive tactics are used to influence people to believe, buy, or do something. Students should be able to identify and comprehend the propaganda techniques and persuasive tactics listed below.

1.      Name-calling is an attack on a person instead of an issue.

2.      A bandwagon appeal tries to persuade the reader to do, think, or buy something because it is popular or because “everyone” is doing it.

3.      A red herring is an attempt to distract the reader with details not relevant to the argument.

4.      An emotional appeal tries to persuade the reader by using words that appeal to the reader’s emotions instead of to logic or reason.

5.      A testimonial attempts to persuade the reader by using a famous person to endorse a product or idea (for instance, the celebrity endorsement).

6.      Repetition attempts to persuade the reader by repeating a message over and over again.

7.      A sweeping generalization (stereotyping) makes an oversimplified statement about a group based on limited information.

8.      A circular argument states a conclusion as part of the proof of the argument.

9.      An appeal to numbers, facts, or statistics attempts to persuade the reader by showing how many people think something is true.

Duration

45–90 minutes/1–2 class periods

Prerequisite Skills

Prerequisite Skills haven't been entered into the lesson plan.

Materials

[IS.8 - ELL Students]

Note: Please check Web sites in advance for availability.

o   “Hurricane Earl grows to category 4; Tropical Storm Fiona forms.” CNN U.S. 31 August 2010. http://www.cnn.com/2010/US/08/30/tropical.weather/index.html.

o   “Our view on food safety: Egg recalls fit pattern of negligence, lax oversight.” USA Today. 29 August 2010. http://www.usatoday.com/news/opinion/editorials/2010-08-30-editorial30_ST_N.htm

o   “Texting is not talking.” The Boston Globe. 16 July 2009. http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/editorial_opinion/editorials/articles/2009/06/16/texting_is_not_talking/

o   Pandemic Level Increased by Daniel Wetter. Scholastic.com. 6 July 2009. http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=3752088

Related Unit and Lesson Plans

Related Materials & Resources

The possible inclusion of commercial websites below is not an implied endorsement of their products, which are not free, and are not required for this lesson plan.

[IS.8 - ELL Students]

Note: Please check Web sites in advance for availability.

o   “Hurricane Earl grows to category 4; Tropical Storm Fiona forms.” CNN U.S. 31 August 2010. http://www.cnn.com/2010/US/08/30/tropical.weather/index.html.

o   “Our view on food safety: Egg recalls fit pattern of negligence, lax oversight.” USA Today. 29 August 2010. http://www.usatoday.com/news/opinion/editorials/2010-08-30-editorial30_ST_N.htm

o   “Texting is not talking.” The Boston Globe. 16 July 2009. http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/editorial_opinion/editorials/articles/2009/06/16/texting_is_not_talking/

o   Pandemic Level Increased by Daniel Wetter. Scholastic.com. 6 July 2009. http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=3752088

Formative Assessment

  • View

    [IS.11 - ELL Students]

    • Observe groups as they are working to be certain that students understand the tasks. Use the annotated passages that students turn in to determine whether reteaching is needed.

Suggested Instructional Supports

  • View
    Scaffolding, Active Engagement, Explicit Instruction
    W: Have students extend their understanding of bias, stereotypes, and exaggeration and identify ways these techniques can interfere with clear communication.
    H: Engage students with a century-old Supreme Court decision that indicates truth in advertising problems began long ago and with a visual ad that depends on exaggeration for its effect.
    E: Have groups analyze their passages.
    R: Build on the knowledge students have gained in the first two lessons by having them analyze and annotate passages.
    E: Provide opportunities for students to self-evaluate as they compare their responses to the readings with those of the other members of their group and with those of the whole class during presentation.
    T: Provide instruction that involves group activities and sharing with the rest of the class.
    O: Guide students to acquire new information that expands on the knowledge they have learned in the first two lessons of the unit.

     

    IS.1 - Preparation
    List the ELLs in this class and their level(s) of English Proficiency  
    IS.2 - ELP Standards
    Identify the ELP standard(s) to be addressed in this lesson  
    IS.3 - Language Function

    Select a language function for oral development during lesson

    Using examples and illustrations (photographs) discuss the meaning of these words. ELLs at levels 1 and 2 will need more oral practice to appropriate the concepts embedded in new vocabulary.

    IS.4 - All Students
    Vocabulary is best introduced for all learners using graphic organizers, such as the Frayer Model.  
    IS.5 - Language Function
    Select a language function for oral development during lesson  
    IS.6 - All Students
    All learners can benefit from specific examples and non-examples of difficult conceptual words, such as exaggeration and propaganda.  
    IS.7 - Level 1

    Level 1

    Level 2

    Level 3

    Level 4

    Level 5

    Entering

    Beginning

    Developing

    Expanding

    Bridging

    Ask and answer WH

    questions about

    vocabulary in the

    lesson(Bias,

    Exxageration,

    Propaganda Techniques)

    using illustration and simple examples with a partner

    Describe situations from modeled sentences and text, including examples of concepts introduced in lesson (name-calling, a bandwagon, a red herring, an emotional appeal, a testimonial, repetition,

    stereotyping, a circular argument an appeal to numbers, facts, or statistics). Using a graphic organizer in small group

    Give a brief summary of how these techniques affect what a person says, writes and reads using a graphic organizer in a small group

    Paraphrase and summarize ideas from others about how authors use these techniques by analyzing propaganda and editorials. Students will use a graphic organizer to present their ideas and work in small groups

    Read, discuss and

    identify passages as objective or biased, underlining supportive evidence, and identifying the technique  used. Explain in writing why it is effective.

     Record ideas in journal for future oral presentation

     
    IS.8 - ELL Students
    How are these materials culturally relevant to ELLs in grade 7? Use your response to activate student’s prior knowledge. 
    IS.9 - All Students
    All learners can benefit from recent, specific examples of exaggeration in advertising:  http://cwanamaker.hubpages.com/hub/Exaggerated-Images-in-Advertising 
    IS.10 - ELL Students
    How will ELLs identify concepts and examples? Is there something culturally relevant to them?  What scaffolds will they need? Use your response to activate prior knowledge. 
    IS.11 - ELL Students
    The same accommodations and scaffolding provided for instruction need to be implemented in assessment tools used with ELLs  

Instructional Procedures

  • View

    Focus Question: What is exaggeration and how is it used in nonfiction?

    Tell students that keeping advertising honest has long been a problem, and share part of the 1916 Supreme Court decision that attempted to keep mail advertisers from exaggerating their claims. [IS.9 - All Students] (See BARS ADVERTISERS FROM EXAGGERATION; “Supreme Court Holds That Even if Value Is Given Offense Still Exists in Materials.”) [IS.10 - ELL Students]

    Part 1

    Post the definitions for exaggeration and propaganda on the board/interactive whiteboard. (See Tier III Vocabulary at the beginning of the lesson or Reading Assessment Anchor Glossary.)

    Have students view the Cheez-It ad as an example of exaggeration. Point out that propaganda is the type of writing that relies most strongly on bias and the use of devices such as stereotyping and exaggeration.

    Part 2

    Arrange students into groups and have each group analyze one objective article and one that uses bias or stereotype. Examples include the following:

    • “Hurricane Earl grows to category 4; Tropical Storm Fiona forms”
    • “Our view on food safety: Egg recalls fit pattern of negligence, lax oversight”
    • “Texting is not talking”
    • Pandemic Level Increased by Daniel Wetter

    Have students annotate these readings as a group, using the following checklist:

    • identify author’s purpose
    • identify the reading as an objective or a biased piece, with supporting evidence from the text
    • identify any specific examples of stereotyping or exaggeration

    (The pandemic and hurricane articles should be regarded as objective; the others are biased and include the use of stereotyping and biased language.) When the groups have completed their annotations of the readings, have them share with the rest of the class and then turn them in to you.

    Extension:

    • Students who need additional opportunities for learning may work with a partner to annotate another pair of readings—one objective and one biased. Have students discuss their work in small groups. Present feedback to students to make sure they have grasped the concepts of exaggeration and propaganda.
    • Remind students of the Bias Meter (see L-7-3-1_Bias Meter in the Resources folder). Have them use this tool to rate the level of bias in the readings they annotated for this lesson.
    • Students who are ready to go beyond the standard may analyze bias in history. Have them use the reading about Japanese internment camps, which is listed in Related Resources. Remind students that this article was written in 1942.

Related Instructional Videos

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Instructional videos haven't been assigned to the lesson plan.
DRAFT 06/09/2011
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