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Subject Area - 3:
Science and Technology and Engineering Education
  • Standard Area - 3.2: Physical Sciences: Chemistry and Physics
  • Organizing Category - 3.2.A: Chemistry
  • Grade Level - 3.2.10.A: GRADE 10
Standard - 3.2.10.A5

MODELS

Describe the historical development of models of the atom and how they contributed to modern atomic theory.

SCALE

Apply the mole concept to determine number of particles and molar mass for elements and compounds.

  • Assessment Anchor - CHEM.A.1 Properties and Classification of Matter
    • Anchor Descriptor - CHEM.A.1.1

      Identify and describe how observable and measurable properties can be used to classify and describe matter and energy.

      • Eligible Content - CHEM.A.1.1.1 Classify physical or chemical changes within a system in terms of matter and/or energy.
      • Eligible Content - CHEM.A.1.1.2 Classify observations as qualitative and/or quantitative.
      • Eligible Content - CHEM.A.1.1.3 Utilize significant figures to communicate the uncertainty in a quantitative observation.
      • Eligible Content - CHEM.A.1.1.4 Relate the physical properties of matter to its atomic or molecular structure.
      • Eligible Content - CHEM.A.1.1.5 Apply a systematic set of rules (IUPAC) for naming compounds and writing chemical formulas (e.g., binary covalent, binary ionic, ionic compounds containing polyatomic ions).
  • Assessment Anchor - CHEM.A.2 Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table
    • Anchor Descriptor - CHEM.A.2.1 Explain how atomic theory serves as the basis for the study of matter.
      • Eligible Content - CHEM.A.2.1.1 Describe the evolution of atomic theory leading to the current model of the atom based on the works of Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, and Bohr.
      • Eligible Content - CHEM.A.2.1.2 Differentiate between the mass number of an isotope and the average atomic mass of an element.
    • Anchor Descriptor - CHEM.A.2.2 Describe the behavior of electrons in atoms.
      • Eligible Content - CHEM.A.2.2.1 Predict the ground state electronic configuration and/or orbital diagram for a given atom or ion.
      • Eligible Content - CHEM.A.2.2.2 Predict characteristics of an atom or an ion based on its location on the periodic table (e.g., number of valence electrons, potential types of bonds, reactivity).
      • Eligible Content - CHEM.A.2.2.3 Explain the relationship between the electron configuration and the atomic structure of a given atom or ion (e.g., energy levels and/or orbitals with electrons, distribution of electrons in orbitals, shapes of orbitals).
      • Eligible Content - CHEM.A.2.2.4 Relate the existence of quantized energy levels to atomic emission spectra.
    • Anchor Descriptor - CHEM.A.2.3 Explain how periodic trends in the properties of atoms allow for the prediction of physical and chemical properties.
      • Eligible Content - CHEM.A.2.3.1 Explain how the periodicity of chemical properties led to the arrangement of elements on the periodic table.
      • Eligible Content - CHEM.A.2.3.2 Compare and/or predict the properties (e.g., electron affinity, ionization energy, chemical reactivity, electronegativity, atomic radius) of selected elements by using their locations on the periodic table and known trends.
  • Assessment Anchor - CHEM.B.1 The Mole and Chemical Bonding
    • Anchor Descriptor - CHEM.B.1.1 Explain how the mole is a fundamental unit of chemistry.
      • Eligible Content - CHEM.B.1.1.1 Apply the mole concept to representative particles (e.g., counting, determining mass of atoms, ions, molecules, and/or formula units).
    • Anchor Descriptor - CHEM.B.1.2 Apply the mole concept to the composition of matter.
      • Eligible Content - CHEM.B.1.2.1 Determine the empirical and molecular formulas of compounds.
      • Eligible Content - CHEM.B.1.2.2 Apply the law of definite proportions to the classification of elements and compounds as pure substances.
      • Eligible Content - CHEM.B.1.2.3 Relate the percent composition and mass of each element present in a compound.
    • Anchor Descriptor - CHEM.B.1.4 Explain how models can be used to represent bonding.
      • Eligible Content - CHEM.B.1.4.1 Recognize and describe different types of models that can be used to illustrate the bonds that hold atoms together in a compound (e.g., computer models, ball‐and‐stick models, graphical models, solid‐sphere models, structural formulas, skeletal formulas, Lewis dot structures).
      • Eligible Content - CHEM.B.1.4.2 Utilize Lewis dot structures to predict the structure and bonding in simple compounds.
  • Assessment Anchor - CHEM.B.2 Chemical Relationships and Reactions
    • Anchor Descriptor - CHEM.B.2.2 Explain how the kinetic molecular theory relates to the behavior of gases.
      • Eligible Content - CHEM.B.2.2.1 Utilize mathematical relationships to predict changes in the number of particles, the temperature, the pressure, and the volume in a gaseous system (i.e., Boyle’s law, Charles’s law, Dalton’s law of partial pressures, the combined gas law, and the ideal gas law).
      • Eligible Content - CHEM.B.2.2.2 Predict the amounts of reactants and products involved in a chemical reaction using molar volume of a gas at STP.
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